[USA] Congenital hypothyroid cases in 5 states on Pacific ocean increased by +28% from 3/17 to 6/30/2011

 

According to Joseph J. Mangano from the Radiation and Public Health Project and Janette D. Sherman, Congenital hypothyroid cases in 5 states on Pacific ocean (Alaska, California, Hawaii, Oregon and Washington) increased by +28% from 3/17 to 6/30/2011 at maximum.

 

They reported this below,

Large amounts of fallout disseminated worldwide from the meltdowns in four reactors at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi plant in Japan beginning March 11, 2011 included radioiodine isotopes. Just days after the meltdowns, I-131 concentrations in US precipitation was measured up to 211 times above normal. Highest levels of I-131 and airborne gross beta were documented in the five US States on the Pacific Ocean. The number of congenital hypothyroid cases in these five states from March 17-December 31, 2011 was 16% greater than for the same period in 2010, compared to a 3% decline in 36 other US States (p < 0.03). The greatest divergence in these two groups (+28%) occurred in the period March 17-June 30 (p < 0.04). Further analysis, in the US and in other nations, is needed to better understand any association between iodine exposure from Fukushima-Dai-ichi and congenital hypothyroidism risk.
・・・

A review of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data measuring airborne levels of gross beta was con- ducted, to compare 2010 and 2011 levels. The EPA uses air filters to measure aerosols at points close to ground level. The Agency typically does measurements about twice a week for 69 US sites. At the time of the analysis, data were only available up to October 4, 2011, and thus results for the periods January 1 to October 4 were com- pared for 2010 and 2011 [46]. Beta measurements in- clude a variety of radioisotopes, of which I-131 is a por- tion, meaning gross beta as a proxy for relative expo- sures to the thyroid gland.
The largest amounts of radioactive fallout in the US environment from Fukushima occurred in late March and all of April 2011, before declining to levels typically re- corded in 2010. Thus, 2010-2011 comparisons were made for two periods. The first was March 15-April 30, and the second was the remainder of the period (January 1- March 14 plus May 1-October 4).
To identify an “exposed” population, we selected 18 EPA stations in the five Pacific/West Coast States for which at least 20 gross beta measurements were made during both 2010 and 2011. Many stations had consid- erably more, and thus a total of 1,043 and 1,083 meas- urements were used in the two years for the 18 stations.
We identified a “control” group representing the re- mainder of the US. Thus, 31 sites were selected, repre- senting a wide geographic diversity. These sites recorded 59 to 79 airborne beta measurements each year for the 288-day period January 1-October 4, approximately twice- weekly measurements for the entire period. In all, 2,211 and 2,057 measurements were included in each respect- tive year for the 31 sites. The list of these 18 exposed and 31 control sites is given in Appendix 1.
The “average” beta for each group was calculated by dividing the arithmetic mean by the number of sites (18 or 31). Table 3 presents the changes in average beta for exposed and control groups, for the periods of higher and lower/no exposure.
The data show that in the 18 sites in the Pacific/West Coast (“exposed”) was 7.345 times higher in the March 15-April 30 period, compared to just 2.397 in the 31 other sites (“controls”), a ratio of 3.06. For the rest of the year, the 2010-2011 change was very small (0.983 and 1.018, a ratio of 0.97), which is expected due to the ab- sence of Fukushima fallout in both years.
Observations for some sites showed especially large increases. In the Pacific/West Coast, the largest changes were in the California cities of Eureka (increase of 38.264 times), Anaheim (14.941), and San Bernardino (12.054). In the 31 control sites, the only increases above 4.2 times were observed in Tucson AZ (9.320) and Salt Lake City UT (7.879), both located in the western US. The lowest figures were found in the southeastern cities of Baton Rouge LA (1.222) and Montgomery AL (1.212). This shows that for all areas of the US, 2010-2011 gross beta concentrations increased in the period March 15- April 30. Thus, Fukushima fallout appeared to affect all areas of the US, and was especially large in some, mostly in the western part of the nation.

Cite this paper
J. Mangano, J. and D. Sherman, J. (2013) Elevated airborne beta levels in Pacific/West Coast US States and trends in hypothyroidism among newborns after the Fukushima nuclear meltdown. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2013.31001.

 

Full report → http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojped/

 

 

_____

Français :

[USA] Le nombre de cas d’hypothyroïdie congénitale ont augmenté de 28 % entre le 17 mars et le 30 juin 2011 dans 5 états de l’océan Pacifique

 

Selon Joseph J. Mangano du Radiation and Public Health Project et Janette D. Sherman, les cas d’hypothyroïdie congénitales de 5 états de l’océan Pacifique (Alaska, Californie, Hawaii, Oregon et Washington) ont augmenté de 28 % au maximum entre le 17 mars et le 30 juin 2011.

Ils le rapportent ainsi :

Large amounts of fallout disseminated worldwide from the meltdowns in four reactors at the Fukushima-Dai-ichi plant in Japan beginning March 11, 2011 included radioiodine isotopes. Just days after the meltdowns, I-131 concentrations in US precipitation was measured up to 211 times above normal. Highest levels of I-131 and airborne gross beta were documented in the five US States on the Pacific Ocean. The number of congenital hypothyroid cases in these five states from March 17-December 31, 2011 was 16% greater than for the same period in 2010, compared to a 3% decline in 36 other US States (p < 0.03). The greatest divergence in these two groups (+28%) occurred in the period March 17-June 30 (p < 0.04). Further analysis, in the US and in other nations, is needed to better understand any association between iodine exposure from Fukushima-Dai-ichi and congenital hypothyroidism risk.
・・・
A review of US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) data measuring airborne levels of gross beta was con- ducted, to compare 2010 and 2011 levels. The EPA uses air filters to measure aerosols at points close to ground level. The Agency typically does measurements about twice a week for 69 US sites. At the time of the analysis, data were only available up to October 4, 2011, and thus results for the periods January 1 to October 4 were com- pared for 2010 and 2011 [46]. Beta measurements in- clude a variety of radioisotopes, of which I-131 is a por- tion, meaning gross beta as a proxy for relative expo- sures to the thyroid gland.
The largest amounts of radioactive fallout in the US environment from Fukushima occurred in late March and all of April 2011, before declining to levels typically re- corded in 2010. Thus, 2010-2011 comparisons were made for two periods. The first was March 15-April 30, and the second was the remainder of the period (January 1- March 14 plus May 1-October 4).
To identify an “exposed” population, we selected 18 EPA stations in the five Pacific/West Coast States for which at least 20 gross beta measurements were made during both 2010 and 2011. Many stations had consid- erably more, and thus a total of 1,043 and 1,083 meas- urements were used in the two years for the 18 stations.
We identified a “control” group representing the re- mainder of the US. Thus, 31 sites were selected, repre- senting a wide geographic diversity. These sites recorded 59 to 79 airborne beta measurements each year for the 288-day period January 1-October 4, approximately twice- weekly measurements for the entire period. In all, 2,211 and 2,057 measurements were included in each respect- tive year for the 31 sites. The list of these 18 exposed and 31 control sites is given in Appendix 1.
The “average” beta for each group was calculated by dividing the arithmetic mean by the number of sites (18 or 31). Table 3 presents the changes in average beta for exposed and control groups, for the periods of higher and lower/no exposure.
The data show that in the 18 sites in the Pacific/West Coast (“exposed”) was 7.345 times higher in the March 15-April 30 period, compared to just 2.397 in the 31 other sites (“controls”), a ratio of 3.06. For the rest of the year, the 2010-2011 change was very small (0.983 and 1.018, a ratio of 0.97), which is expected due to the ab- sence of Fukushima fallout in both years.
Observations for some sites showed especially large increases. In the Pacific/West Coast, the largest changes were in the California cities of Eureka (increase of 38.264 times), Anaheim (14.941), and San Bernardino (12.054). In the 31 control sites, the only increases above 4.2 times were observed in Tucson AZ (9.320) and Salt Lake City UT (7.879), both located in the western US. The lowest figures were found in the southeastern cities of Baton Rouge LA (1.222) and Montgomery AL (1.212). This shows that for all areas of the US, 2010-2011 gross beta concentrations increased in the period March 15- April 30. Thus, Fukushima fallout appeared to affect all areas of the US, and was especially large in some, mostly in the western part of the nation.

Référence :

J. Mangano, J. and D. Sherman, J. (2013) Elevated airborne beta levels in Pacific/West Coast US States and trends in hypothyroidism among newborns after the Fukushima nuclear meltdown. Open Journal of Pediatrics, 3, 1-9. doi: 10.4236/ojped.2013.31001.

Article complet → http://www.scirp.org/journal/ojped/

Categories: Confirmed effects